Smokers or non-smokers: who benefits more from immune checkpoint inhibitors in treatment of malignancies? An up-to-date meta-analysis

Published on 2020-01-21T05:11:57Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are a milestone in anti-cancer therapy, have been applied in the treatment of multiple malignancies. Real-world data have suggested that smoking status may be associated with the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Hereby, to evaluate “smoking benefit or not”, we included numerous high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) without any restriction on category. Methods A systematic search of online database was performed from July 2010 to July 2019. Eligible studies included phase II/III RCTs comparing PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with chemotherapy in the treatment of multiple carcinomas and contained subgroup analysis of smoking status. Then, related hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) were pooled. Results In the initial meta-analysis, compared with chemotherapy, the OS of non-smokers (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.98) and smokers (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71–0.83) were significantly prolonged with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Outcomes from subgroup analysis showed that in anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy groups, non-smokers showed no significant improvement in OS (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83–1.06), while the OS of smokers was significantly prolonged (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74–0.85); in groups of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy, the OS of non-smokers (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.71) and smokers (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61–0.85) were significantly prolonged. Combined ipilimumab and chemotherapy showed no significance in both groups. Conclusion Smokers benefit from either anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy or the combined regimen compared with chemotherapy. Considering cost-effectiveness, monotherapy was recommended to smokers. For non-smokers, only the combined regimen was feasible in non-small cell lung cancer.

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Mo, Jiahang; Hu, Xiao; Gu, Lihu; Chen, Bangsheng; Khadaroo, Parikshit; Shen, Zefeng; et al. (2020): Smokers or non-smokers: who benefits more from immune checkpoint inhibitors in treatment of malignancies? An up-to-date meta-analysis. figshare. Collection. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4823841.v1