Risk factors for the development of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed magnesium oxide: a retrospective cohort study

Published on 2019-02-13T05:00:00Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Magnesium oxide (MgO), an antacid and laxative, is widely used in Japan to treat constipation and peptic ulcers. Because serum Magnesium (Mg) levels are elevated in elderly and/or patients with renal failure, its periodic monitoring is recommended for patients prescribed MgO, in order to prevent MgO-induced hypermagnesemia. However, there is little information regarding the factors contributing to the development of MgO-induced hypermagnesemia. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the risk factors of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed MgO. Methods Data of 3258 patients hospitalized in Mie University Hospital between October 2015 and September 2017, who were prescribed MgO tablets, were extracted from the electronic medical records. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 320 of the 3258 patients were enrolled in this study. Hypermagnesemia was defined as serum Mg levels ≥2.5 mg/dL (by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the development of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed MgO using the following variables: age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen levels, MgO dose, duration of MgO administration, and co-administrated proton pump inhibitors, H2 blocker (famotidine), vitamin D3 drugs, and diuretics. Results Seventy-five patients out of 320 (23%) developed grade 1 and grade 3 hypermagnesemia, with the occurrence of grade 1 and grade 3 in 62 (19%) and 13 (4%) patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated 4 independent risk factors for hypermagnesemia comprising estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 55.4 mL/min (odds ratio (OR): 3.105, P = 0.001), blood urea nitrogen ≥22.4 mg/dL (OR: 3.490, P < 0.001), MgO dose ≥1650 mg/day (OR: 1.914, P = 0.039), and duration of MgO administration ≥36 days (OR: 2.198, P = 0.012). The occurrence rate of hypermagnesemia was elevated in accordance with these risk factors. Conclusions These results suggest that a periodic monitoring of serum Mg levels is strongly recommended in MgO prescribed patients, especially in those with multiple risk factors for hypermagnesemia. The present findings provide useful information for the safe management of MgO therapy.

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Wakai, Eri; Ikemura, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Takuya; Okuda, Masahiro (2019): Risk factors for the development of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed magnesium oxide: a retrospective cohort study. figshare. Collection. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4398956.v1