Prevalence of porcine circovirus type 3 in pigs in the southeastern Chinese province of Zhejiang

Published on 2019-07-15T05:00:00Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was first reported in US in 2016. The virus was also identified later in China. Prevalence of PCV3 in Zhejiang province in southeastern China is not clear though it has been reported in many parts of China. Results PCV3 infection and its co-infection with other swine viral pathogens in pig herds of Zhejiang province were retrospectively investigated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and its sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA. PCV3 was found positive in 67.1% of the 283 clinical samples taken from 2014 to 2017 as shown by qPCR. Single infection with PCV3 accounted for only one-third of the samples, and majority were of co-infections, predominantly with PEDV (41.6%) but generally low with other swine viruses. Indirect ELISA using the PCV3 capsid protein as the coating antigen revealed an average sero-positive rate of 52.6% (40.8 to 60.8%) in 2345 serum samples from 2011 to 2017, with earliest yet high positive findings in samples taken in 2012. Of 203 serum samples, the qPCR method showed more positive findings than ELISA (81.3% vs 56.2%). With 89 serum samples negative by ELISA, vast majority (n = 81) were found positive by qPCR. There was negative correlation in levels of PCV3 DNA and anti-capsid antibody response. ORF2-based phylogenetic analysis revealed three major groups (PCV3a, PCV3b and PCV3c) of the 200 strains, 38 from this study and 162 reference strains from GenBank. Most of the strains from this study were clustered into PCV3c. Of the putative signature residues of the capsid protein (aa 24, 27, 77 and 150) relative to the three groups, only the PCV3a group strains showed a distinct pattern of residues VKSI (95% of the strains), while the other two groups did not have such a ‘signature’ pattern. Conclusions Results from this study provided further evidence that the novel virus PCV3 was widely distributed in China and might have emerged in Zhejiang province before 2014, most probably back in 2012 when there was high PCV3 sero-prevalence. PCV3 might be viremic in pigs and could spread by fecal shedding.

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Geng, Shichao; Luo, Hao; Liu, Yajie; Chen, Cong; Xu, Weicheng; Chen, Yunlu; et al. (2019): Prevalence of porcine circovirus type 3 in pigs in the southeastern Chinese province of Zhejiang. figshare. Collection.