Metabolically healthy obese and metabolic syndrome of the lean: the importance of diet quality. Analysis of MAGNETIC cohort

Published on 2020-02-26T04:43:07Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Obesity is considered as an indispensable component of metabolic health assessment and metabolic syndrome diagnosis. The associations between diet quality and metabolic health in lean, young adults have not been yet established whilst data addressing this issue in overweight and obese subjects is scarce. Our analysis aimed to establish the link between diet quality (measured with data-driven dietary patterns and diet quality scores) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults, regardless of their adiposity status. Methods A total of 797 participants aged 18–35 years old were included in the study. Participants were assigned into metabolic syndrome (MS) group if at least two abnormalities within the following parameters were present: blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood glucose. Participants with one or none abnormalities were considered as metabolically healthy subjects (MH), Diet quality was assessed with two approaches: 1) a posteriori by drawing dietary patterns (DPs) with principal component analysis (PCA) and 2) a priori by establishing diet quality scores and the adherence to pro-Healthy-Diet-Index (pHDI) and non-Healthy-Diet-Index (nHDI). Logistic regression with backward selection based on Akaike information criterion was carried out, to identify factors independently associated with metabolic health. Results Within the MS group, 31% were of normal weight. Three PCA-driven DPs were identified, in total explaining 30.0% of the variance: “Western” (11.8%), “Prudent” (11.2%) and “Dairy, breakfast cereals & treats” (7.0%). In the multivariate models which included PCA-driven DPs, higher adherence to middle and upper tertiles of “Western” DP (Odds Ratios [OR] and 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI]: 1.72, 1.07–2.79 and 1.74, 1.07–2.84, respectively), was associated with MS independently of clinical characteristics including BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Similar results were obtained in the multivariate model with diet quality scores - MS was independently associated with higher scores within nHDI (2.2, 0.92–5.28). Conclusions Individuals with MS were more likely to adhere to the western dietary pattern and have a poor diet quality in comparison to metabolically healthy peers, independently of BMI and WHR. It may imply that diet composition, as independent factor, plays a pivotal role in increasing metabolic risk. Professional dietary advice should be offered to all metabolically unhealthy patients, regardless of their body mass status.

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Osadnik, Kamila; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Lonnie, Marta; Lejawa, Mateusz; Reguła, Rafał; Fronczek, Martyna; et al. (2020): Metabolically healthy obese and metabolic syndrome of the lean: the importance of diet quality. Analysis of MAGNETIC cohort. figshare. Collection. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4871103.v1