Deciphering the immunogenic potential of wheat flour: a reference map of the salt-soluble proteome from the U.S. wheat Butte 86

Published on 2020-08-02T03:58:39Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Within the complex wheat flour proteome, the gluten proteins have attracted most of the attention because of their importance in determining the functional properties of wheat flour doughs and their roles in human health conditions such as celiac disease and food allergies. However, certain non-gluten proteins also trigger immunological responses but may be present in flour in low amounts or obscured by the more abundant gluten proteins in two-dimensional gels of total protein preparations. Methods Non-gluten proteins were preferentially extracted from the flour with a dilute salt solution and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins in 173 gel spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry after cleavage with trypsin or chymotrypsin. Transgenic wheat lines in which specific groups of gluten proteins were suppressed by RNA interference were used to estimate the amount of carry-over of gluten proteins in the salt-soluble protein fraction. Results Fifty-seven different types of non-gluten proteins were identified, including 14 types that are known or suspected immunogenic proteins. The predominant proteins in 18 gel spots were gluten proteins. Some of these also contained non-gluten proteins. Analysis of the salt-soluble proteins from a transgenic line in which omega-1,2 gliadins were eliminated by RNA interference indicated that certain omega-1,2 gliadins were present in large amounts in the salt-soluble fraction and obscured relatively small amounts of beta-amylase and protein disulfide isomerase. In comparison, analysis of a transgenic line in which alpha gliadins were absent revealed that glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase was a moderately abundant protein that co-migrated with several alpha gliadins. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a proteomic map of the non-gluten protein fraction of wheat flour from the US wheat Butte 86 that complements a proteomic map of the total flour proteins developed previously for the same cultivar. Knowing the identities of low abundance proteins in the flour as well as proteins that are hidden by some of the major gluten proteins on two-dimensional gels is critical for studies aimed at assessing the immunogenic potential of wheat flour and determining which wheat proteins that should be targeted in future gene editing experiments to reduce the immunogenic potential of wheat flour.

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Altenbach, Susan B.; Chang, Han-Chang; Simon-Buss, Annamaria (2020): Deciphering the immunogenic potential of wheat flour: a reference map of the salt-soluble proteome from the U.S. wheat Butte 86. figshare. Collection.