Springer Nature

Concordance between two monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for measuring cysticercal antigen levels in sera from pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena

Posted on 2024-04-03 - 03:43
Abstract Background Antigen detection in Taenia solium cysticercosis confirms viable infection in the intermediate host (either pig or human). The reference B158/B60 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based Ag-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity in human neurocysticercosis with multiple brain cysts, although its sensitivity is lower in cases with single brain cysts, whereas in porcine cysticercosis the assay specificity is affected by its frequent cross-reaction with Taenia hydatigena, another common cestode found in pigs. Our group has produced 21 anti-T. solium mAbs reacting against antigens of the whole cyst, vesicular fluid, and secretory/excretory products, identifying TsW8/TsW5 as the most promising pair of mAbs for an Ag-ELISA. Methods We report the use of the TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA to measure cysticercus antigen levels [expressed as optical density (OD) values] in two panels of sera collected from day 0 (baseline) to day 90 postinfection (PI) from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium (n = 26) and T. hydatigena (n = 12). At baseline and on days 28 and 90 PI, we used Bland–Altman (BA) analysis and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) to determine the concordance between the TsW8/TsW5 and the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Results The TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA was able to efficiently measure circulating antigen levels in T. solium-infected pigs, similar to that obtained with the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Almost all paired log-OD differences between assays were within the limits of agreement (LoA) in the BA analysis at baseline and on days 28 and 90 PI (92.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively), and a high concordance of log-ODs between assays was also found (Lin’s CCC: 0.69, 0.92, and 0.96, respectively, all P < 0.001). In pigs infected with T. hydatigena, almost all paired log-OD differences were within the LoA in the BA analysis, whereas the concordance of log-ODs between assays was low at baseline (Lin’s CCC: 0.24) but increased on days 28 and 90 PI (Lins’ CCC: 0.88 and 0.98, P < 0.001). Conclusions/significance The TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA recognizes antigens in pigs with T. solium cysticercosis and is highly concordant with the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. However, its diagnostic use is hampered by cross-reactions with T. hydatigena, as in other mAb-based Ag-ELISAs. Graphical Abstract


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