Clonorchis sinensis MF6p/HDM (CsMF6p/HDM) induces pro-inflammatory immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells via NF-κB-dependent MAPK pathways

Published on 2020-01-14T05:17:15Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background MF6p/host defense molecules (HDMs) are a broad family of small proteins secreted by helminth parasites. Although the physiological role of MF6p/HDMs in trematode parasites is not fully understood, their potential biological function in maintaining heme homeostasis and modulating host immune response has been proposed. Methods A gene encoding the MF6p/HDM of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMF6p/HDM) was cloned. Recombinant CsMF6p/HDM (rCsMF6p/HDM) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The biochemical and immunological properties of rCsMF6/HDM were analyzed. CsMF6p/HDM induced pro-inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells was analyzed by cytokine array assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The structural feature of CsMF6p/HDM was analyzed by three-dimensional modeling and molecular docking simulations. Results The CsMF6p/HDM shares a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with orthologs from other trematodes and is expressed in diverse developmental stages of the parasite. The rCsMF6p/HDM bound to bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), without effectively neutralizing LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Rather, the rCsMF6p/HDM induced pro-inflammatory immune response, which is characterized by the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, in RAW 264.7 cells. The rCsMF6p/HDM-induced pro-inflammatory immune response was regulated by JNK and p38 MAPKs, and was effectively down-regulated via inhibition of NF-κB. The structural analysis of CsMF6p/HDM and the docking simulation with LPS suggested insufficient capture of LPS by CsMF6p/HDM, which suggested that rCsMF6p/HDM could not effectively neutralize LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusions Although rCsMF6p/HDM binds to LPS, the binding affinity may not be sufficient to maintain a stable complex of rCsMF6p/HDM and LPS. Moreover, the rCsMF6p/HDM-induced pro-inflammatory response is characterized by the release of IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The pro-inflammatory response induced by rCsMF6p/HDM is mediated via NF-κB-dependent MAPK signaling pathway. These results collectively suggest that CsMF6p/HDM mediates C. sinensis-induced inflammation cascades that eventually lead to hepatobiliary diseases.

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Kang, Jung-Mi; Yoo, Won; Lê, Hương; Lee, Jinyoung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk (2020): Clonorchis sinensis MF6p/HDM (CsMF6p/HDM) induces pro-inflammatory immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells via NF-κB-dependent MAPK pathways. figshare. Collection.