Additional file 1: Figure S1. of Zebrafish knockout of Down syndrome gene, DYRK1A, shows social impairments relevant to autism

Characterization of early neural development and larval behavioral tests in WT and dyrk1aa KO fish. (A-F) Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis with various molecular markers at 24 hpf (A, B, lateral view) and 48 hpf (C-F, rostral dorsal view): sox2, neural stem cell marker; neurog1, neuronal determination marker; and cyclin D1, cell proliferation marker. Anterior is to the left. Number of fish used for the analysis: 1) after sox2 staining and photography, each embryo was genotyped for WT (5/19) and KO homozygote (3/19); 2) for neurog1, it was WT (6/16) and KO homozygote (4/16); and 3) for cyclin D1, WT (3/16) and KO homozygote (5/16), respectively. (G) Locomotion response to dark flashes in WT and dyrk1aa KO larvae at 6 dpf. Movement distance was measured by video tracking analysis (cm per every 10 s). With light-on in 30 s-intervals, zebrafish larvae showed a freezing response (yellow box in the graph). However, they showed a startle response to light-off dark condition (gray box). The number of fish used for this assay: n = 14 for WT (+/+), n = 25 for heterozygote (+/−), and n = 9 for KO homozygote (−/−). (H) Circadian rhythms in WT and dyrk1aa KO larvae between 5 and 7 dpf. Circadian rhythms of locomotor activity under LD (day-night) cycles were measured. Both WT and dyrk1aa KO larvae display a similar pattern of locomotor activity in daytime or nighttime. The number of fish used for this assay: n = 11 for control heterozygote (+/−), and n = 13 for KO homozygote (−/−). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. (PDF 1219 kb)