MOESM14 of Structural alteration of DNA induced by viral protein R of HIV-1 triggers the DNA damage response

Additional file 14: Figure S13. Topo1 is required for Vpr-dependent upregulation of viral infection. a MM-6 cells were infected with Vpr proficient (R+) or deficient (R−) NL4-3 viruses under down-regulation of Topo1 by three species of siRNAs. The integration rate was quantitated by Alu-gag two-step nested qPCR at 2dpi; relative integration rates are shown. Data were obtained from more than three independent experiments. Error bar indicates ± SEM. **P < 0.05 b Knockdown efficiency of each siRNA. Relative levels of Topo1 expression are shown. Topo1 siRNA#3 was used in other experiments.