Additional file 7: Figure S4. of Neonatal inflammatory pain and systemic inflammatory responses as possible environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder of juvenile rats

Neonatal peripheral inflammatory pain caused social memory impairment in male juvenile rats. Direct interaction and five-trial social memory tests were performed to clearly reveal the effect of neonatal peripheral inflammatory pain on social memory. A and B. Direct interaction test using the same (A) or different (B) rats in the two trials. A. Both male and female rats in the formalin group displayed increased exploring time (unchanged sociability), but the control group showed decreased exploring time (decreased sociability). * P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6-7 per group. B. When subject rats were exposed to a novel rat, both groups explored new stimulus rats similarly. * P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6-7 per group. C. Five-trial social memory assay. Male, but not female, rats in the formalin group dishabituated to the same rat during four trials and habituated to a novel rat (trial 5). * P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6-7 per group. (TIF 871 kb)