Additional file 6: of Gender difference in the effects of interleukin-6 on grip strength – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Forest plot representing the male minus female standardized differences in mean values of various muscle parameters (muscle mass/strength/function) in corresponding groups from the same studies. Squares show the difference in mean values with the grey area reflecting the weight assigned to the study. Horizontal bars indicate 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The diamond shows the overall effect size (ES) with the corresponding 95% CI. Subgroups in Ogawa et al. [43] are indicated with Arabic numerals. A: Grip strength; B: Chair stand test; C: 6-min walk; D: Lean mass; E: Up and go test; F: Muscle volume; G: Fat-free mass; H: Knee extension test; I: Thigh muscle area. Significantly higher muscle mass/strength/function was demonstrated in male than in female volunteers (i.e. positive standardized difference in mean values): ES = 1.82 with 95% CI (1.62, 2.02) p < 0.001. The heterogeneity of the data was high: p < 0.001, I2 = 95.4%. No small study effect was identified using Egger’s test: p = 0.163. (TIF 295 kb)