Additional file 5: Figure S5. of Blockade of autophagy reduces pancreatic cancer stem cell activity and potentiates the tumoricidal effect of gemcitabine

OPN triggered STAT3, ERK, and NF-κB activation, but not AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK in pancreatic cancer cells. (A) PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells were treated with OPN (100 ng/mL) for the indicated time points. The cell lysates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting using the indicated antibodies. (B) PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells were incubated with OPN (100 ng/mL) for the indicated time points. Cells were lysed and fractionated, and the levels of NF-κB p65 in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions were detected by Western blotting. β-Actin serves as a cytosolic marker, and LAMIN A/C serves as a nuclear marker. (For detail, please see Additional file 8). (TIFF 2417 kb)