Additional file 4: of Ultrasound-guided cannulation of hemodialysis access

Ultrasound-guided femoral vein cannulation. A 3.5-cm-deep femoral vein is cannulated with a long 16-gauge dialysis needle by the catheter-over-needle technique. The needle tip is guided precisely to on the top of the vein without hitting the adjacent artery which lies to its upper left. After entering the femoral vein, the needle tip is again guided inside the lumen of the vein to ensure that the catheter tip is well within the lumen of the vessel, which facilitates subsequent catheter advancement. (MP4 12434 kb)