Additional file 3: of Full L1-regularized Traction Force Microscopy over whole cells

Ten samples frames illustrating the whole TFM experiment and comparing the traction recovery with the different regularization methods. For each frame: (Top row, left) CHO cell expressing Lifeact-GFP; (Top row, center) Pseudo-color image showing the fluorescent beads at the hydrogel surface. The beads of the unstressed and stressed hydrogels have been superposed and pseudo-colored in red and green, respectively; therefore, beads are colored in yellow when not displaced. The contrast of the pseudo-color images has been modified to highlight the areas with bead displacements; (Top row, right) Magnitude (in μm) and direction (arrows) of in-plane displacements estimated from the bead images. (Bottom row) Recovered traction magnitude (in Pa) and direction (arrows) using: (Left) Tikhonov regularization; (Center) L1-norm regularization; (Right) full L1-norm regularization. The outline of the mask used for traction recovery is shown in red (Top row, right) and white (for the rest). The scale bar represents 30 μm. Frame #5 corresponds to Fig. 7 in the main manuscript. (GIF 10461 kb)