Additional file 2: Figure S2. of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion is inhibited by Activin A in ACVRIB-positive cells

“Overexpression of Activin A, validated by ELISA, was persistent and did not affect fibroblast contractility”; validation of assays by ELISA and cell contractility assay. (a) Overexpression of Activin A was validated following each retrovirus transduction. Levels of secreted Activin A protein, measured in conditioned media, were significantly higher in Act A compared to parent and empty vector control, ECdnT, TE-2, and TE-11 cells in 2D monolayer. Overexpression of Activin A was validated throughout the 17-day organotypic culture with ECdnT (b), TE-2 (c), and TE-11 (d). Fibro-ActA had sustained increased expression of Activin A during this time period. (e) Parent, empty, and Fibro-ActA had comparable ability to contract collagen, indicating that overexpression of Activin A alone did not hinder the fibroblasts ability to contract the extracellular matrix. 3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) was used as an assay control. (f) Quantification (percent) of fibroblast matrix contraction from (e). (One-way ANOVA, *p<0.05). (TIF 4375 kb)