Additional file 2: Figure S2. of Andrographolide induces Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 in astrocytes by activating p38 MAPK and ERK

Andrographolide upregulates NAD(P)H quinone oxoreductase 1 (Nqo1) in astrocytes. Primary astrocytes were treated with andrographolide (50 μM) for the indicated time intervals and measured for Nqo1 a mRNA and b immunoreactivity (with representative immunoblots), together with respective bar graphs of mean ± S.E.M. fold changes in transcript level or optical density (OD), with vehicle-only (“0 h”) group set as 1, from 4 independent experiments. Raw transcript values were normalized to mean expression of housekeeping genes (see the “Methods” section) prior to conversion to fold-change values while Nqo1 immunoreactivity was normalized to β-actin. ***p < 0.001; significantly different from vehicle-only group (one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post hoc tests). (DOCX 176 kb)