Additional file 1: Figure S1. of Suppression of interleukin-6 increases enterovirus A71 lethality in mice

Effects of IL-6 knockout on numbers of activated T cells in infected mouse brains. The numbers of activated (CD69+) CD4+ and (CD69+) CD8+ T cells in the brain of wild-type (WT) and IL-6 −/− mice, which were mock-infected (−) or infected with EV-A71 (+) for 10 days, are shown. Data show means + SEM (error bars) of 3 samples per group. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01. Figure S2. Effects of anti-IL-6 antibody treatment on tissue viral loads of infected wild-type mice. Tissues of C57BL/6J mice treated with control antibody (n = 6) or anti-IL-6 antibody (n = 5) on days 0 and 2 after infection were collected on day 6 after infection to determine viral titers. Data show means + SEM (error bars). Figure S3. Gradually declined serum IL-6 levels in infected BALB/c mice from day 4 post-infection. One- to three-day mice were mock-infected (M) or infected with EV-A71 strain M2 (a) or strain 4643 (b). The serum IL-6 levels are shown. Data show means + SEM (error bars) of ≥3 samples per group. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001. Figure S4. Effects of IL-6 knockout on cytokine levels in infected mice. IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the serum (a and b) and brain (c and d) of mock-infected (M) mice (n = 3–4/group) and infected wild-type (WT) mice (n = 6/group) and IL-6 −/− mice (n = 6/group) are shown. Data show means + SEM. *P < 0.05. Figure S5. Effects of IL-6 knockout on numbers of regulatory T cells in the spleen of infected mice. The numbers of CD4+ Foxp3+ splenocytes in wild-type (WT) mice and IL-6 −/− mice, which were mock-infected (−) or infected with EV-A71 (+) for 10 days, are shown. Data show means + SEM (error bars) of 3 samples per group. (DOC 7204 kb)