Additional file 1: of HIV-1 Tat-induced diarrhea is improved by the PPARalpha agonist, palmitoylethanolamide, by suppressing the activation of enteric glia

PEA failed to inhibit bisacodyl-induced diarrhea in rats. Bisacodyl (20 mg/kg) caused a significant increase of (a) daily defecation frequency, (b) average daily number of wet spots, and (c) fluid accumulation within 7 days from diarrhea induction, vs. vehicle group. PEA (2–10–50 mg/kg) resulted ineffective to exert any anti-diarrheal activity. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of n = 5 experiments. ***p < 0.001 vs. vehicle group. (TIFF 1347 kb)