Additional file 1: Figure S1. of Lidocaine alleviates morphine tolerance via AMPK-SOCS3-dependent neuroinflammation suppression in the spinal cord

Lidocaine has no analgesic effect at 1 h after intrathecal administration. Mice were intrathecally injected with lidocaine (100, 200, 400 μg/10 μL) and analgesic effect was assessed at 0–120 min. Tail-flick method was performed to evaluate the analgesic effect of lidocaine. Data were shown as percentage of MPE (n = 8). ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 versus saline group. (PDF 715 kb)