Additional file 17: Figure S9. of ABO antigen and secretor statuses are not associated with gut microbiota composition in 1,500 twins

Analyses using only individuals with BMI < 25 recapitulate results. A-C) Neither ABO or secretor status associated with broad compositional differences of the gut microbiota in the TwinsUK. None of the top 100 principal coordinates (PCs) from principal coordinate analysis of unweighted UniFrac distance are significantly associated with either ABO or secretor status. The first two PCs are shown, colored by ABO status (A) and secretor status (B). (C) Discriminant analysis of PCA (DAPC) is largely unsuccessful at predicting ABO or secretor status from microbiome data. The mean accuracy from 5-fold cross validation is plotted for ABO status, secretor status, and ABO status only in secreting individuals (yellow). Significance was determined by comparing the accuracy of each test to the accuracies of permuted data, which took into account twin relationships (gray). D-F) Microbiome diversity does not significantly differ by ABO, but does by secretor status. Within sample diversity (Faith’s phylogenic diversity) is significantly different between secretors versus non-secretors (D, P < 0.05), but not across the ABO groups in all individuals (E, P > 0.05), or across ABO groups in only secreting individuals (C, P > 0.05). (F) Microbiomes are more similar for siblings versus pairs of unrelated individuals, as measured by unweighted UniFrac distance. However, microbiomes of pairs of individuals concordant for either ABO or secretor status are not more similar than for pairs of individuals who are discordant. This holds true when all individuals in the dataset are considered (“all individuals”) or when only one individual from each twin pair is examined (“one twin per family”). The total number of pairs of individuals within each boxplot is indicated with “n = “. H) None of the common taxa are associated with ABO or secretor status. QQ-plot displaying the expected –log10(P-value) compared to the –log10(P-value) for all taxa tested in linear mixed models 6 (light gray points) and 8 (dark gray points, as plotting in Fig. 3). Significance codes: P ≤ 0.05 = *, P ≤ 0.01 = **, P ≤ 0.001 = ***, P ≤ 0.0001 = ****, not significant = NS. (PDF 387 kb)